Bulgarian National Radio

Works by Bulgarian Composers

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DOBRI HRISTOV (1875 - 1941) received his musical education in Prague. After his return to Bulgaria, he made a significant contribution to the development of the Bulgarian musical culture in the first half of the 20th century. He composed many choral and solo songs, as well as symphonic works. Dobri Hristov was one of the most prominent researchers of the Bulgarian musical folklore. He often interpolates folklore elements into his music. His name is also emblematic for the Bulgarian Orthodox music - he is the author of a number of chants for the church liturgies and the All-Night Vigil. His activity as a lecturer at the State Academy of Music and as a researcher is of fundamental importance for music pedagogy and musicology in Bulgaria. Dobri Hristov was one of the initiators for the foundation of the oldest music festival in Bulgaria – „Varna Summer“.

1/ O Gladsome Light, from „Chants on the All-Night Vigil”

2/ Lord, now lettest Thy servant depart in peace, from „Chants on the All-Night Vigil”

„O Gladsome Light” and Lord, now lettest Thy servant depart in peace” are liturgical chants from Dobri Hristov’s „Chants on the All-Night Vigil” composed in the 1930s. Тhey have been written to be sung in the church. Today, they are still part of the liturgical repertoire and are regularly performed during different services in the Bulgarian orthodox churches. Some of them are also included in concert programmes. „Chants on the All-Night Vigil” is one of the great liturgical cycles of Dobri Hristov together with „Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom” and „Exoteric Liturgy”.

PETKO STAYNOV (1896 - 1977) was one of the most prominent and active Bulgarian composers and musicians. The loss of his eyesight as a child did not prevent him from becoming an excellent musician and an active participant in the country’s cultural life. He mastered the Braille alphabet in both Bulgarian and German and used it throughout his entire life. Petko Staynov completed his higher musical education in Germany where he gave concerts as a pianist. In Bulgaria he was engaged in a wide range of musical and social activities as chairman of the Union of Folk Choirs in Bulgaria and of the Contemporary Music Society of the Bulgarian Composers of which he was also a co-founder. He was director of the National Opera, the Institute of Music at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, as well as deputy director of the National Theatre and chairman of the State Philharmonic in Sofia. Petko Staynov composed symphonic and chamber instrumental music. He had a great contribution to Bulgarian choral art - he established the genre of the a cappella choral ballad in the Bulgarian music. His music bears elements of the song traditions and rhythms of the Bulgarian folk music. In 1998 a foundation was established after his name – "Petko Gruev Staynov”. The idea of the foundation is promoting the composer’s works both in Bulgaria and abroad as well as supporting the young Bulgarian composers, conductors, performers and researchers.

3/ "Thracian Dances“ (1925) is the first significant work of Petko Staynov. It was composed in 1925, initially in three parts – "Paydushko”, "Rachenitsa” and "Horo”, and later a fourth part was added – "Mechkarsko” (The Bear Warder’s Dance). The Thracian Dances suite was performed for the first time on January 4, 1927 in Sofia. It is emblematic for Petko Staynov’s musical work and for the Bulgarian music in general.

PANCHO VLADIGEROV (b. Zurich, 1899 - 1978) lived and worked in Germany until 1932. He created outstanding works performed at the world concert stages. He worked as a composer at the Deutsches Theater in Berlin. He was a representative for Bulgaria in the Permanent Council for International Cooperation between Composers (1936 - 1942). In 1968 he received the Gottfried von Herder Prize of the University of Vienna for his contribution to Europe's cultural heritage. Professor of composition and piano at the Music Academy in Sofia, Vladigerov played a crucial role in the development of the Bulgarian musical culture.

4/ Bulgarian Rhapsody "Vardar“, op. 16 (1922, orch. 1928) is one of the most popular and widely performed Bulgarian symphonic works. It was originally created in 1922 for violin and piano. Later, Vladigerov made an orchestration for a symphony orchestra. It is based on the melody of the song „A lonely outcry is heard“, written in the spirit of Macedonian folk songs. It is dedicated to "Bulgarian youth fighting for independence in Vardar Macedonia“.

DIMITAR NENOV (1901 - 1953) was an extremely talented musician and creator with diverse interests. He was well-known as a virtuoso pianist, composer and also an architect. With his musical and public activities he was among the leading figures in Bulgaria’s cultural life. A faithful follower of Liszt-Busoni-Petri, Nenov developed a modern approach to playing, combining artistic mastery with virtuoso piano technique. He was also an innovator in composing music, affirming his original style. In terms of compositional technique, his works are comparable to the best European musical works of the same period and, in terms of the Bulgarian composers’ school, they are ahead their time with generations. Dimitar Nenov was one of the founders of Radio Sofia and the first music curator in the newly formed team. His ideas proved to be especially important for the creation of the music programmes of the radio in the first few years of its existence. Dimitar Nenov was a professor at the Bulgarian Academy of Music and co-founder of the Contemporary Music Society of Bulgarian Composers.

5/ "Theme with Variations“ (1931) is a musical work composed in a relatively traditional late Romanticism manner. It was written in 1931 in Dresden as part of an unfinished sonata. It was performed for the first time by Dimitar Nenov himself. „Theme with Variations“ remains perhaps the largest solo piano cycle in the Bulgarian music to this day.

VESSELIN STOYANOV (1902 - 1969) was born in a family of musicians in one of the cultural centres of Bulgaria at that time. He specialized in Vienna where he became closely acquainted with the works of world-famous composers such as Richard Strauss and Arnold Schönberg. After returning to Bulgaria, he gave concerts as a pianist and conductor and composed music. He is considered one of the founders of the Bulgarian national school of composers, along with other prominent Bulgarian musicians. He was among the founders of the Union of Bulgarian Composers. He was director of the Sofia National Opera and rector of the Music Academy in Sofia. Vesselin Stoyanov's music is influenced by the late Romanticism style. A characteristic technique used by V. Stoyanov is the interpolating of folklore elements, without original quotations. Thus, the composer successfully combined the contemporary way of expression with the typically Bulgarian folklore motifs. He wrote mainly instrumental works. His compositions are accepted with great interest not only in Bulgaria but also abroad.

6/ "Festive Overture“ (1959) is one of Vesselin Stoynov’s most beloved and popular instrumental work. It is glamorous, with an extremely live character and clear musical expression. To this day, it is a preferred concert piece in the repertoire of Bulgarian orchestras.

7/ String Quartet No. 3, Phrygian (1935) Vesselin Stoyanov is the author of three string quartets. He wrote them in his youth when he was very active as a pianist, conductor, composer and pedagogue. String Quartet No. 3 is among the classical examples of the Bulgarian music. It is performed in Bulgaria and at world stages.

Movements: Moderato, Adagio, Allegro.

LYUBOMIR PIPKOV (1904 - 1974) With his various interests and progressive for his time views, Lyubomir Pipkov was a leading figure in the cultural life of Bulgaria in the 1930s through the 1970s. He left a rich heritage as a composer, educator, poet and publicist. After receiving his higher musical education in Paris, he worked as an accompanist and choirmaster at the Sofia Opera, of which he later became the director. Lyubomir Pipkov combined his work as a composer with a great public activity. He was one of the founders of the Contemporary Music Society of the Bulgarian Composers and also the founder and first editor-in-chief of the „Music“ journal. He was chairman of the Union of the Bulgarian Composers and professor in vocal ensembles at the Music Academy in Sofia. Lyubomir Pipkov established his individual compositional style, creating notable works in almost all genres - operas, symphonies, vocal-symphonic and chamber music. The Bulgarian characteristic sound is clearly expressed in them, without the direct use of folklore quotations.

8/ "Spring over Thrace“ is a suite for chamber orchestra. Lyrical in nature, it is dedicated to Bulgaria’s geographical region of Thrace. Various scenes and emotional states are musically portrayed in three parts entitled: „Spring over Thrace”, „Song from Afar” and „Springtime Breeze”.

VASSIL KAZANDJIEV (b. 1934) belongs to the group of the most prominent contemporary Bulgarian composers and conductors. Along with Konstantin Iliev, Lazar Nikolov, Georgi Tutev and Ivan Spassov, he is regarded as part of the Bulgarian musical avant-garde. With his original compositional style, Vassil Kazandjiev has proved himself as one of the contemporary European classics. In a number of his works, he experiments with combining different elements, vocal and instrumental effects and uses aleatory devices. Vassil Kazandjiev has a significant contribution to the Bulgarian music not only as a composer, but also as a conductor who created his own conducting school. He is also known as the founder of the Sofia Soloists Chamber Ensemble, with which he has been performing for many years and has achieved international acclaim, touring Europe, Asia and the USA. He works as a conductor at the Sofia Opera. He conducts various symphony orchestras, including the Symphony Orchestra of the Bulgarian National Radio. He has taken part in numerous international festivals. So far, he has premiered over 60 contemporary works and made recordings for more than 20 record companies. Professor at the National Academy of Music in Sofia, Vassil Kazandjiev teaches orchestral and opera conducting, as well as score reading and playing.

9/ "Pictures from Bulgaria“ (1970), was written for strings, flutes and percussion, in the important period of Vasil Kazandjiev’s work when he made experiments with modern compositional techniques and created some of his most remarkable works. Apart from "Paintings from Bulgaria”, emblematic for his music of the same period (1970s) are also "Living Icons“, "Apocalypse“, "Festive Music“, "Triumph of the Bells“. In them, the composer achieves the characteristic sound effects by using aleatory devices and ingenious combinations of timbres. The six parts of "Paintings from Bulgaria“, as it is obvious from their titles, are dedicated to some historical landmarks and folk customs in Bulgaria: "Rila Monastery“, "Veliko Tarnovo“, "Bagpipes“, "Tongue-twister“, "Village song", "Dance of the Kukeri”.

EMIL TABAKOV (b. 1947) is a distinguished name in the contemporary Bulgarian music - composer, conductor and well-known public figure. Immediately after graduating from the Music Academy in Sofia, he became very active as a musician, composing music and performing with various symphony orchestras. He started as a conductor of the Ruse Philharmonic in his hometown. In different periods of time he has worked as a music director and a conductor of elite musical ensembles such as Sofia Soloists Chamber Ensemble, the Sofia Philharmonic, the Belgrade Philharmonic, the Bilkent Symphony Orchestra in Ankara and the Symphony Orchestra of the Bulgarian National Radio. He has composed a large-scale symphonic works - symphonies, instrumental concertos, vocal-symphonic works, as well as chamber compositions. His music has been performed in Bulgaria, Germany, Portugal, USA, Japan, Finland, France, Austria, Mexico, Russia, Turkey etc. As a conductor of the Sofia Philharmonic Orchestra and the Symphony Orchestra of the Bulgarian National Radio, Emil Tabakov has recorded multiple works from the romantic repertoire, including some complex and rarely performed works. During his guidance of these two music ensembles (the major orchestras in Bulgaria), he managed to bring them to a high professional and artistic level, so that they become competitive with the best European and world symphony orchestras. Emil Tabakov is a winner of prestigious national awards in the field of music. He was voted Musician of the Year of the Bulgarian National Radio in 1992. He has also been elected Minister of Culture of Bulgaria.

10/ Symphony № 5 (2000) belongs to Emil Tabakov’s largest and most dramatic works. It is composed for a huge orchestra – all instrumental groups are expanded which makes the musical culminations stronger in their sound power. The use of some unconventional instruments in the orchestra determines the timbres diversity of the symphony. The music is impressive with its rapid and energetic flow, with the emotional suspense and dramatic development leading to a tragic and apocalyptic suggestions. Emil Tabakov's Fifth Symphony is defined by musicologists as „one of the unique phenomena in the great forms of the Bulgarian symphonic music which so successfully impresses the vivid European dramatic-tragic tradition.

Movements: Spirituoso, Largo, Allegro moderato, Finale.

VESSELIN STOYANOV (1902 - 1969) was born in a family of musicians, in one of the cultural centres of Bulgaria at that time. He specialized in Vienna where he became closely acquainted with the works of world-famous composers such as Richard Strauss and Arnold Schönberg. After returning to Bulgaria, he gave concerts as a pianist and conductor and composed music. He is considered one of the founders of the Bulgarian national school of composers, along with other prominent Bulgarian musicians. He was among the founders of the Union of the Bulgarian Composers. He was director of the Sofia National Opera and rector of the Music Academy in Sofia. Vesselin Stoyanov's music is influenced by the late Romanticism style. A characteristic technique used by V. Stoyanov is the interpolating of folklore elements, without original quotations. Thus, the composer successfully combined the contemporary way of expression with the typically Bulgarian folklore motifs. He wrote mainly instrumental works. His compositions are accepted with great interest not only in Bulgaria but also abroad.

11/ A Ritual Chorus Salambo, from the opera Salambo (1940), Scene 3

With his operas Vesselin Stoyanov outlines two new thematic lines in his work – the comic one (in the opera The Kingdom of Women) and the heroic-historical one (in the opera Salambo). He adheres to them in his later work, as well. The opera Salambo is a heroic-historical musical drama, similar in style to the Western European musical drama of the early 20th century. It is written in six scenes based on the famous novel Salammbô by Gustave Flaubert. The author of the libretto is Boris Borozanov. Following the main lines of the plot, through his music the composer reveals episodes from the remote life in Carthage during the 3rd century BC, in the years after the first Punic War. Given the foreign plot and the distant historical epoch, Salambo differs from the other Bulgarian works which form the development of the Bulgarian national opera. Here the use of traditional intonations is avoided. Typical for Salambo is the predominant recitative singing. V. Stoyanov has composed the vocal parts in a recitative-declamatory style, striving to resemble the intonation movement of the speech. However, he has also composed widely developed, melodic and emotional arias and vocal ensembles. The orchestration is rich and colorful. In terms of the orchestral expressive devices used by V. Stoyanov, Salambo occupies one of the first places in the Bulgarian opera work. The Ritual Chorus in Scene 3 of Salambo is part of an impressive ritual scene of the priests, with a characteristic eastern sound (often appearing of the intervals of an increased second in the male choir's part).

12/ Rhapsody (1956). The Rhapsody is a brilliant and virtuoso symphonic work with colorful orchestral sound. It is composed on a folklore basis. It is characterized by bright optimistic and cheerful moods. V. Stoyanov also created its arrangement for piano.

PHILIP KUTEV (1903 - 1982). Philip Kutev is a Bulgarian composer and conductor. He graduated from the State Music Academy (today NMA “Prof. Pancho Vladigerov”) in Sofia. During the period 1930 - 1935 he lived in the town of Burgas where he worked as a military bandmaster, conductor of the Native Sounds orchestra and a violin teacher at the primary music school. His five-year activity in Burgas has left a long lasting traces in the development of the local musical culture. In 1935 he settled in Sofia where he also performed the duties of a military bandmaster and, at the same time, was a choir conductor. He was chairman of the Union of the Bulgarian Composers.

In 1951 Philip Kutev founded the State Ensemble for Folk Songs and Dances, to which he dedicated a large part of his time and work – he manages the activities of the ensemble and its concert performances. Thanks to his efforts the Bulgarian folk music has gained more popularity not only in Bulgaria but also abroad. Kutev’s work with the folk ensemble made him focus his creative searches mainly on the songs – he wrote many choral arrangements of folk songs, which have been used as a model by the next generation authors of Bulgarian choral music. He also composed  original songs in the spirit of the village folk songs. After the death of Philip Kutev in 1982, the ensemble was renamed after its founder - State Ensemble for Folk Songs and Dances Philip Kutev.

Philip Kutev is one of the composers who have influenced the formation of the Bulgarian national musical style. His works are closely connected to the folk music, that he transformed in his own way, harmonized and enriched through various compositional techniques. The composer explored the modal regularities of the folk songs, from which he borrowed the harmony of his polyphonic arrangements. Two main lines are clearly distinguished in his music –the influence of the Bulgarian archaism  and the ritual-song motifs on one hand, and heroic and dramatic moods on the other. The second line turned out to be characteristic of many of the works of  the Bulgarian composers at that time.

13/ Sakar Suite, for symphony orchestra (1940). During the period 1936 - 1943 Philip Kutev created four vocal suites for voice and chamber orchestra – Trakiyska (from Thrace), Srednogorska (from Sredna Gora), Lazarska (with choir) and Severozapadna (from North-Western Bulgaria). They form the main line in his work. Composer’s national-realistic searches are affirmed in them. Sakar Suite was originally also written in a version for voice and orchestra, followed a few years later by an author's arrangement for symphony orchestra. Musically and structurally, these vocal suites have almost nothing in common with the old dance suites or the newer symphonic and ballet suites. Each of them combines folk songs from one and the same folklore region in Bulgaria. Philip Kutev has arranged the original folk melodies in his own way – by changing the tone range (ambitus), lengthening or shortening the melody, harmonization. The harmony language plays an essential role in achieving musical expressiveness in the suites. In the polyphonic arrangements of folk songs Philip Kutev and most of his contemporaries were pioneers because, at the same time, there were no established traditions in this field, yet.

Sakar Suite is the most famous one among the Kutev’s suites after traditional sources. With this work he established himself as an original artist, with a fine sense of the Bulgarian folklore to the smallest detail.

Movements: Andante; Vivace; Largo. Andante sostenuto. Vivo - Rachenitsa

LYUBOMIR PIPKOV (1904 - 1974). With his various interests and progressive for his time views, Lyubomir Pipkov was a leading figure in the cultural life of Bulgaria in the 1930s through the 1970s. He left a rich heritage as a composer, educator, poet and publicist. After receiving his higher musical education in Paris, he worked as an accompanist and choirmaster at the Sofia Opera, of which he later became the director. Lyubomir Pipkov combined his work as a composer with a great public activity. He was one of the founders of the Contemporary Music Society of the Bulgarian Composers and also the founder and first editor-in-chief of the "Music" journal. He was chairman of the Union of the Bulgarian Composers and professor in vocal ensembles at the Music Academy in Sofia. Lyubomir Pipkov established his individual compositional style, creating notable works in almost all genres - operas, symphonies, vocal-symphonic and chamber music. The Bulgarian characteristic sound is clearly expressed in them, without the direct use of folklore quotations.

14/ A cappella Chorus from the opera Momchil (1944, premiere - 1948), Scene 6

Momchil (libretto by Hristo Radevski, based on the novel  Last Day, God's Day by Stoyan Zagorchinov) is a heroic epic opera by Lyubomir Pipkov – one of the top achievements in the Bulgarian opera music. It recreates historical events from the end of the 13th century – the period immediately before the Turkish invasion in Bulgaria, when the conflict between the common people and those in power  was at its peack in the country. The musical dramaturgy of the opera truthfully reveals this tragic but also heroic period in the life of the Bulgarian people. The expressive devices used by Pipkov in Momchil are rich and varied and they form the characteristics of his musical language . He creates convincing musical characteristics of the actors and the people. The nation is the main actor in the opera, marked in the score as "chorus". The mass scenes in Momchil play an extremely important role in the musical and stage development of the work.

The a cappella Chorus (Psalm) in the Scene 6 of the opera Momchil is extremely emotional and impressive. Along with the biblical pathos of the Psalm of David, it recreates the despair and inconsolable sobs of a struggling people wich are in danger of losing their freedom. The a cappella Psalm contrasts with both the heroic final chorus of the previous Scene 5 and the next chorus of the Scene 6 – the optimistic and masculine finale of the entire opera – when the people hopefully take the path of the struggle again. In its musical essence and irresistible influence, Scene 6 from Momchil remains unattainable in the Bulgarian opera work.

MARIN GOLEMINOV (1908 - 2000) is a prominent Bulgarian composer, conductor, music pedagogue and musicologist. His original musical work played a significant role in the formation of the characteristic stylе trends in the Bulgarian music of the 20th century. Elements of Bulgarian folklore were interpolated into his music, in combination with his individual  ideas and techniques. His compositional style is also influenced by the stage works of Stravinsky and Ravel, and some of his earlier works are based on the Bulgarian archaism. Many of his works became a permanent part of the repertoire of the Bulgarian musicians up to now.

Marin Goleminov graduated from the State Musical Academy in Sofia (today NMA Prof. Pancho Vladigerov). He has developed his musical knowledge and skills in Paris and Munich. After returning to his homeland, he devoted himself to a creative activity – he conducted the Radio Sofia Chamber Orchestra and participated in many concerts as a member of the famous Avramov Radio Quartet. Goleminov ocupied a number of leading positions – a member of the Contemporary Music Society of the Bulgarian Composers, director of the Sofia National Opera (1965-67), rector of the State Music Academy (1954-56), where he was professor of instrumentation, orchestration, conducting and composition. He supported young composers, avant-garde ideas and innovative thinking. His musical work includes operas, dance dramas, symphonic and vocal-instrumental works as well as chamber music (instrumental and vocal). He is also an author of musical-scientific and journalistic works. His contribution to music science and culture is highly valued in Bulgaria and abroad. He was an academician at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and a cavalier of the Order of Arts and Letters of France. He is a winner of the Herder Prize.

15/ Symphonic variations on a theme by Dobri Hristov (1942). Marin Goleminov created Symphonic variations on a theme by Dobri Hristov in 1942. The work is based on the theme of the song Mountain Pirin by Dobri Hristov - his first teacher in composition. The Symphonic variations is a huge work with rich orchestration. A curious fact is that at the premiere in Frankfurt with Lubomir Romansky as a conductor, the enthusiastic audience’s applauses continued so long that the author, the conductor and thе performers had to bow 14 times. The work has been performed many times throughout whole Europe.

16/ Old-Bulgarian Quartet (1946). Marin Goleminov has written eight quartets, which represent an important part of his work. He has played second violin for some time in the famous Bulgarian Avramov Radio Quartet. The quartets of Marin Goleminov are between the most frequently performed Bulgarian chamber works. Old-Bulgarian Quartet is one of his most distinctive chamber works. It was created in 1946. The main music theme comes from a collection of Old-Bulgarian religious tunes. The composer incorporates it in all parts of the work. Regarding the dimension of the ideas, the richness of the music forms and the content of the musical dramaturgy, the Old-Bulgarian Quartet has a meaning, equivalent to a symphonic work.

Movements: Molto sostenuto, Scherzando, Andante sostenuto, Allegro comodo.

17/ Five Sketches, for String Quartet (1948). Marin Goleminov created Five Sketches for String Quartet in 1948. The titles of the pieces are Children’s Game, Harvest, Dance, Fairy-tale, Dance Melody. The composer orchestrated the pieces for string ensemble in 1952.

ALEXANDER RAICHEV (1922 - 2003) graduated from the State Academy of Music in Sofia in 1947. He studied piano and composition with Prof. Pancho Vladigerov, specialized conducting with Janos Ferencsik and composition with Zoltan Kodaly from the Ferenc Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest (Hungary). In 1962 Alexander Raichev became Professor of harmony and later of composition at the State Academy of Music. He was Rector of the Academy from 1972 to 1979 and chairman of the Union of the Bulgarian Composers from 1980 to 1990. Since 1990 Alexander Raichev is member of the Royal Academy of Science and Fine Arts in Belgium and Honorary member of the International Association for Contemporary Music in Baden-Baden, Germany. He has won many national and international awards for composition. Alexander Raichev has written works in all genres. The subject matter of his vocal-instrumental works is based on some of the ideas of the present age. Most of his symphonies are programmatic. The second symphony is considered one of the most significant Bulgarian works of the 1950s.
18/ Symphony No. 2 The New Prometheus (1958) is among the most significant works of Alexander Raichev. Dodecaphony’s means are used in the musical structure. The work has a philosophical aspect – the composer uses the character of Prometheus as a symbol of the yearning for happiness. Movements: Prologue, Allegro con fuoco, Presto, Andante, Allegro moderato Epilogue.

KRASSIMIR KYURKCHIISKI (1936 - 2011) is one of the most distinguished Bulgarian composers. His talent is streaming out of his works belonging to all genres – from the arrangements of folk songs to the huge symphonic works. He is the author of one of the most popular Bulgarian choral songs - the music to the ballet The Goat Horn as well as of some different symphonic, chamber, stage works, film and theatre music. He graduated composition with Prof. Pancho Vladigerov at the National Academy of Music in Sofia. He specialized composition with Dmitrii Schostakovich at the Moscow Conservatory. Between 1962 and 1965 he was a composer at the State Ensemble for folk songs and dances. He has been a conductor of Philip Koutev National Folklore Ensemble and Folk Songs Ensemble at the Television and Radio Committee, which later became Mystery of Bulgarian Voices  choir. He won Grand Prix at the Composition Competition Paris Music Weeks in 1966. Kyurkchiiski has an original approach to the arrangements of the Bulgarian folk songs. His arrangements are included in the series of albums called The Mystery of Bulgarian Voices, one of which received Grammy Award in 1990.

19/ Adagio, for string orchestra (1959) is one of the early works of Krassimir Kyurkchiiski. It was created in 1959, when he was a student at the National Academy of Music in the class of Prof. Pancho Vladigerov. This lyrical, romantic work comprises of the characteristic features of his style, which have developed later in his mature orchestral works.

PLAMEN DJOUROFF (b. 1949) graduated from the Academy of Music in Sofia with a degree in piano, conducting and composition.  He has conducted many Bulgarian and foreign orchestras, including Leningrad philharmonic orchestra, symphony orchestras in Algeria, Cuba, Mexico, Germany, Croatia, North Macedonia. Since 1988 he is a conductor of the famous Sofia Soloists Chamber Ensemble. Sofia Soloists  and Plamen Djouroff  performed hundreds of concerts in over 30 countries in Europe, North America and Asia. Over 20 CD albums with recordings of the Ensemble have been released by Denon Records, Decca Records, Victor, Gega New. Plamen Djouroff is Professor of conducting at the National Academy of Music in Sofia. He won some prestigious awards for his compositions and conducting artistry. His music compositions focus mainly on instrumental genres. His works have been performed in a number of countries.

20/ Toccata, for Symphony Orchestra (1982) is between the famous symphonic works of Plamen Djouroff. It was created in 1982. The large-scale form of the work includes expressive timbre combinations. The author preserves the characteristic features of the toccata genre and at the same time is seeking new musical dimensions of the intimation of music dynamics.